stri_enc_toutf8 {stringi}R Documentation

Convert Strings To UTF-8


Converts character strings with declared marked encodings to UTF-8 strings.


stri_enc_toutf8(str, is_unknown_8bit = FALSE, validate = FALSE)



a character vector to be converted


a single logical value, see Details


a single logical value (can be NA), see Details


If is_unknown_8bit is set to FALSE (the default), then R encoding marks are used, see stri_enc_mark. Bytes-marked strings will cause the function to fail.

If a string is in UTF-8 and has a byte order mark (BOM), then BOM will be silently removed from the output string.

If default encoding is UTF-8, see stri_enc_get, then strings marked with native are – for efficiency reasons – returned as-is, i.e. with unchanged markings. A similar behavior is observed when calling enc2utf8.

For is_unknown_8bit=TRUE, if a string is declared to be neither in ASCII nor in UTF-8, then all byte codes > 127 are replaced with the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (\Ufffd). Note that the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER may be interpreted as Unicode missing value for single characters. Here, a bytes-marked string is assumed to be encoded by an 8-bit encoding such that it has ASCII as its subset.

What is more, in both cases setting validate to TRUE or NA validates the resulting UTF-8 byte stream. If validate=TRUE, then in case of any incorrect byte sequences, they will be replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER. This option may be used in a (very rare in practice) case in which you want to fix an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence. For NA, a bogus string will be replaced with a missing value.


Returns a character vector.

See Also

Other encoding_conversion: stri_enc_fromutf32, stri_enc_toascii, stri_enc_tonative, stri_enc_toutf32, stri_encode, stringi-encoding

[Package stringi version 1.1.7 Index]